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Ģeosintētika ceļu būvniecībā : Veidi, ieguvumi, pielietojums

Ģeosintētika ir vispārīgs termins sintētiskiem materiāliem, ko izmanto inženiertehniskajā būvniecībā. Tās ir ķīmiskas vielas, kas iegūtas no akmeņoglēm, naftas, dabasgāzes vai kaļķakmens, ko tālāk pārstrādā sintētisko materiālu šķiedrās vai loksnēs un visbeidzot dažādos ģeosintētiskos izstrādājumos.

Ģeosintētisko materiālu veidi galvenokārt ietver ģeotekstils, ģeomembrānas, speciālie materiāli un ģeokompozīti, ģeonets, stikla šķiedras tīkli, spilveni u. c. Ģeosintētikai mūsdienās ir būtiska nozīme inženierzinātnēs un būvniecībā, nodrošinot rentablu alternatīvu tradicionālajām metodēm.

Šajā rakstā QIVOC iepazīstinās ar ceļu būvē izmantotajiem ģeosintētisko materiālu veidiem, to pielietojumu, priekšrocībām, gadījumu izpēti, biežāk sastopamajām problēmām un risinājumiem. Mēs ceram, ka tas palīdzēs jums labāk izprast ceļu būvniecībā izmantojamo ģeosintētiku.

Ceļu būvniecībā izmantojamo ģeosintētisko materiālu veidi

Ģeotekstils

Ģeotekstils ir caurlaidīgs materiāls. No ražošanas procesa viedokļa to var iedalīt divos veidos., austs ģeotekstils un neausts ģeotekstils. Galvenā atšķirība starp šiem diviem ģeotekstiliju veidiem ir tā, vai tie tiek austi ar mašīnām, un nav lielas atšķirības attiecībā uz specifiskajām funkcijām un pielietojumu. Kopumā ģeotekstiliem galvenokārt ir filtrējoša funkcija autoceļu būvē. Tos parasti izmanto ceļu būvē, lai palīdzētu sašaurināt virsmas slāni un novērstu atstarojošas plaisas.

Ģeotekstila audumu jaudas atklāšana

Gadījuma piemērs

Ceļu būvniecībā pavedienu ģeotekstilu bieži izmanto ceļu seguma ieklāšanai.

Lai uzlabotu ceļa seguma gludumu, novērstu plaisu atstarošanos un pildītu ūdensnecaurlaidīga slāņa funkciju, starp pamatkārtu un virskārtu ieklāj ģeotekstilu un piesūcina ar asfaltu, veidojot ģeotekstila un asfalta starpslāni, kas novērš plaisu atstarošanos no pamatkārtas uz virskārtu un pilda ūdensnecaurlaidīga slāņa funkciju.

Starp asfalta segumu un veco cementa-smilšakmens segumu tika iestrādāts speciāls automaģistrāļu ģeotekstils, lai novērstu plaisu rašanos.

Lai nosegtu plaisas un novērstu noplūdi, tika izmantots pastiprināts sinhronizēts grants blīvējuma slānis ar ģeotekstilu.

Tā kā pavedienu ģeotekstils tiek izmantots kā apstrādājošs materiāls gan ceļa klātnes segumam, gan sākotnējam segumam, tas palēnina plaisu rašanos grants seguma slānī, stabilizē seguma struktūru un atdala to no grants seguma slāņa.

Tā ir ūdensnecaurlaidīga un izturīga pret plaisām, kas pagarina seguma kalpošanas laiku. Tas nemaina tradicionālo grants segumu maisījuma attiecību vai seguma biezumu.

Ģeotekstils, ko izmanto lauku ceļu būvniecības projektos

Ģeomembrānas

Ģeomembrānas ir praktiski necaurlaidīgas, un pēc izejvielu sastāva tās var iedalīt asfalta un polimēru grupās. Lai panāktu konkrētu deformāciju, stiprības standartus un pastiprinātas vai nepastiprinātas. Ģeomembrānas ir labs ģeosintētisks materiāls filtrēšanai, drenāžai, necaurlaidībai un augsnes aizturēšanai.

Par ģeomembrānu - viss, ko vēlaties zināt

Gadījuma piemērs

Automaģistrāles būvniecībā projektā kā ūdensnecaurlaidīgs materiāls tika izmantota ģeomembrāna. Būvniecības procesā projekta komanda stingri ievēroja ģeomembrānas ieklāšanas tehniskās prasības un standartus, lai nodrošinātu ģeomembrānas efektivitāti un izturību. Pēc vairāku gadu lietošanas nelielā automaģistrāles pamatne ir labā stāvoklī, bez acīmredzamas ūdens erozijas un bojājumiem, kas pilnībā pierāda ģeomembrānas priekšrocības un pielietojuma vērtību ceļa klātnes būvniecībā.

Turklāt arī citos ceļu projektos, piemēram, tiltu, tuneļu un citu būvju hidroizolācijas apstrādi plaši izmanto ģeomembrānās.

Kompozītmateriālu ģeosintētika

Kompozītmateriāli ir izstrādājumi, kas ir divu vai vairāku ģeosintētisko materiālu maisījums. Tas apvieno dažādu sintezētu materiālu īpašības, un tam ir plaša pielietojamība. To iedala kompozītmateriāls drenāžai un kompozītmateriālu ģeomembrāna. Pēdējie galvenokārt ietver ģeomembrānas un ģeotekstilu. Kompozītmateriālu ģeomembrānai ir daudz priekšrocību, jo īpaši austam ģeosintētiskā auduma kompozītmateriālam, ģeomembrānai ir laba pastiprinoša funkcija, kas novērš membrānas bojājumus, ko izraisa ārēja iejaukšanās, piemēram, transportēšana vai inženierbūves. Plaši izmanto arī neausto audumu kompozītmateriālus, jo tie nostiprina, aizsargā, aizsargā, ventilē un drenē membrānu un palielina berzes koeficientu uz membrānas virsmas.

Gadījuma piemērs

Kompozītmateriālu ģeomembrānai ir labs pielietojums ceļu būvē. Tā var efektīvi novērst gruntsūdeņu iekļūšanu ceļa virskārtā un saglabāt ceļu sausu un stabilu; tā var arī izolēt ūdeni un novērst ūdens eroziju un ceļa gultnes grunts bojājumus; tai piemīt izturība pret koroziju un laikapstākļu ietekmi, kas var pagarināt ceļa kalpošanas laiku. Tāpēc ir ļoti izdevīgi ceļu būvē plaši izmantot kompozītmateriālu ģeomembrānas.

Speciālā ģeosintētika

Kopumā speciālo ģeosintētiku iedala ģeomembrānu maisos, ģeonets, ģeorežģi, stikla šķiedras tīkli, ģeomati utt.

Ģeorežģis, kas galvenokārt ir izgatavots no polimēru-polimēru materiāliem, veicot atbilstošu virziena stiepšanas apstrādi, un pēc tam veido augstas stiprības, ar atvērtu acu plakanu sieta materiālu. Ģeorežģim piemīt šķērsvirziena, garenvirziena stiprības viendabīgums, laba izturība, lokanība, elastība, izturība pret augsni, izturība pret pelējumu, ļoti spēcīga izturība pret nogurumu un aizpildījuma saslēgšanās.

Ģeorežģu auduma atšķetināšana: Visaptverošs ceļvedis

Ģeomembrānu maisus, kas pieder pie maisam līdzīga materiāla, var izmantot kopā ar šablonu nomaiņai, galvenokārt skalošanas aizsardzības projektā, kas ir izplatītāks.

Stikla šķiedras siets uz stikla šķiedras bāzes plaknes sieta materiālam, augsta temperatūras stabilitāte, var novērst un kontrolēt seguma plaisas.

Geonet, kas galvenokārt sastāv no sintētiska materiāla sloksnēm, ir sava veida plakana, tīklveida ģeosintētisks materiāls. Tam ir laba sasaiste ar ceļa klātnes pildījumu, kas var uzlabot ceļa klātnes izturību un novērst nogāzes virsmas grunts zudumus, un to galvenokārt izmanto ceļa klātnes un uzbērumu aizsardzības projektos.

Gadījuma piemērs

A1 posma automaģistrāles būvniecības projektā. Šajā posmā abu stāvu nogāžu uzbērums tika pastiprināts ar vienvirziena stiepes stiepes augsta blīvuma polietilēna ģeorežģiem. Ceļa klātnes aizpildījuma augstums ir 23 m. Saskaņā ar ģeoloģiskās izpētes ziņojumu grunts kvalitāte ir mīksts grunts māls ar biezumu 5-6 m. Ceļa klātne ir mīksta grunts pamats. Šis ceļa klātnes projekts pieder pie augsta aizpildījuma un augsta stāvas nogāzes uzbēruma uz mīksta grunts pamata. Tāpēc, lai efektīvi uzlabotu mīksto grunšu ceļa klātnes nestspēju un samazinātu tās nosēšanos pēc darba, ceļa klātne ir pastiprināta ar ģeorežģi. Ģeorežģi ir uzstādīti 8 m, 16 m un 20 m biezumā.

Šī projekta īstenošanas rezultāti liecina, ka ģeorežģim ir tādas priekšrocības kā augsta izturība, spēcīga nestspēja, liela izturība, ērta konstrukcija, ilgs kalpošanas laiks u. c., ko var efektīvi izmantot šāda veida projektos.

3 Dzelzceļa būvniecībā izmantoto ģeorežģu inženiertehniskie gadījumi

Ģeosintētikas izmantošana ceļu būvniecībā

Pastiprināts

Krastmalas nostiprināšana

Lai uzlabotu uzbēruma darbu stabilitāti īpašos ceļa posmos, novērstu uzbēruma nosēšanos un taupītu zemi, uzbēruma nostiprināšanai un apstrādes nostiprināšanai var izvēlēties ģeosintētiku.

During construction, geogrids, geotextiles, geonets, etc. are commonly used.

After the embankment is reinforced, the direction of friction formed between the horizontal reinforced surface and the filler material is parallel to the relative displacement direction of the filler material, so that the shear strength of the embankment is enhanced.

In the embankment reinforcement operation, the applied geosynthetics must have good holding power and tensile strength.

To ensure smooth drainage of the embankment so that the geosynthetics are not subjected to chemical corrosion, in the embankment filling operation, it is necessary to lay a sand bedding layer with a thickness of about 40cm on the original surface to enhance the water permeability and then lay the geosynthetics.

In the process of embankment reinforcement, pay attention to the spacing of each layer of geosynthetics, not only to facilitate the construction work, but also to meet the slope protection standards, at least one layer of filler for the minimum compaction thickness, and less than 60cm.

Reinforcement of backfill

Because of the different stiffnesses of the structure crossing the highway project and the structure backfill, it is easy to cause the phenomenon of stepwise uneven settlement.

To prevent the occurrence of “bridge jumping”, it is recommended that geosynthetics be used to reinforce the backfill.

Geosynthetics reinforce the backfill in highway projects, using laying materials, anchorage between structures, and backfill embedded force, contact structures, and backfill, effectively controlling the uneven settlement of the highway.

Ģeosintētika pastiprinātas augsnes stabilizācijā

Filtration and drainage

The stability and strength of roadbed pavement is mainly related to water.

In the construction and maintenance process of roadbed pavement, effective road drainage is required, which is also an important means to ensure the stability of roadbed roads and engineering.

In road engineering construction, geosynthetics and other drainage structures cooperate to form a drainage system, and then smoothly discharge surface water, groundwater and water in the structure.

Utilizing geotextiles in the drainage system also demonstrates the characteristics of fast construction work, simple laying, and low cost.

Geosynthetics can be used alone or mixed with other materials to provide a certain degree of filtration and drainage and can be used in culverts, slope protection of supporting structures and post-wall drainage projects.

Generally, to achieve good filtration effect, non-woven fabrics, or woven geotextiles.

Regarding drainage, non-woven geotextile, or reinforced soft permeable pipe with filter cloth, synthetic fiber and steel ring, and plastic drainage board are available.

Pārskats: Ģeotekstila audums zirgu arēnas drenāžas sistēmai

Roadbed protection

First, the roadbed is mainly composed of rock and soil, and most of them are exposed to nature, and the mechanical properties are easy to change when they are subjected to external force for a long time.

Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of the means of roadbed protection are directly related to the stability and strength of the roadbed.

Roadbed protection is mainly divided into two kinds scour and slope.

The plasticity and toughness of geosynthetics are good, and the use of excellent technology to process them into specific shapes is very suitable for application in highway protection projects.

Secondly, do a good job of slope protection, the roadbed of the outer surface of the slope project plays a protective role in preventing rainwater scouring, but also weakens the temperature and humidity sudden change to the project caused by the disadvantage of the outer surface of the weak rock and soil by the external forces to weaken the role of external forces, such as weathering, stripping process, and then make the roadbed more stable.

In the soil slope protection, generally choose to fix the grass seed cloth, tensile network turf, grid fixed sowing and other means. For rocky slope protection projects, usually choose Geogrid or Geonet.

Thirdly, scour protection can control the water flow action on the roadbed produced by the beat, scouring, washing and other impacts, which can prevent the sudden drop in water level leads to the loss of fine materials in the roadbed. The protection of roadbed projects along the river can choose a geotechnical mold bag.

Pavement Crack Control

Geosynthetics can inhibit the continued expansion of cracks due to the contraction of the semi-rigid base layer, reduce rutting in asphalt pavements, and prevent reflective cracks in asphalt paving layers laid on old pavements.

To better manage the cracking problem of the pavement, geotextiles and fiberglass mesh are generally selected.

In the selection of geosynthetics, the following criteria need to be met.

First, heat resistance.

Geosynthetics laid in the semi-rigid grass-roots level and asphalt surface layer in the middle, heat resistance should be consistent with the asphalt surface layer paving standards, to meet the high temperature of 170 ℃ or more.

Second, anti-cracking. 

Selection of geosynthetics for dissipation of film. For semi-rigid pavement grass-roots level, there is the problem of cracks, paving materials in the vehicle running under the action of load force, maybe in the cracks at the “arc”, which produces a certain amount of tensile stress, to fight against the tensile stress, geosynthetics must meet the strong tensile standard.

Third, the top-breaking standard.

Geosynthetics in the cracks at the risk of being top broken, especially mixed aggregate semi-rigid grass-roots level, affected by the level of construction technology, easy to form small holes in the normal force conditions, small holes in the laying of the material is easy to be broken, so that the strength of the pavement weakened, geosynthetics to have good extensibility.

Benefits of Using Geosynthetic Materials in Road Construction

Cost-effectiveness is a significant advantage of using geosynthetics in road construction.

Geosynthetics provide a more economical solution compared to traditional construction methods. By reducing the need for expensive materials and labor, geosynthetics help lower the overall cost of road construction projects. Additionally, geosynthetics have a longer service life than conventional materials, resulting in reduced maintenance and repair costs over the lifespan of the road.

Geosynthetics also contribute to improved road performance by enhancing the structural integrity of the pavement layers. Geotextiles and geogrids act as a separators between the different layers of pavement construction, preventing the contamination of base material by subgrade soils. This separation function helps maintain the stability and uniformity of the road structure, leading to better load distribution and extended pavement life.

Furthermore, geosynthetics enhance soil stability in road construction projects. By improving the mechanical properties of the soil, geotextiles and geogrids help prevent soil erosion and settlement, reducing the risk of road failures due to unstable subgrade conditions. Geosynthetics also aid in soil reinforcement, increasing the bearing capacity of the subgrade and providing a more robust foundation for the road surface. This leads to improved road performance, reduced maintenance costs, and enhanced safety for road users.

Geosynthetics Used in Road Construction Case Studies and Examples

The semi-rigid grass-roots level is currently the main structural form of highway pavement project, it has the advantages of high strength, good water stability, rigidity, and deformation, but at the same time it is very difficult to overcome in the construction process —- cracks.

After the grass-roots cracking, it will make the bottom of the asphalt pavement born larger stress concentration, the asphalt pavement is most likely to reflect cracks, it is in such as rain, oxidation, dust, and other environmental factors, which will make the cracks quickly spread to the surrounding area, extension is one of the main reasons for the early destruction of the pavement.

To prevent both the grass-roots cracks reflected the surface layer up, but also to prevent the dual role of surface water infiltration, many engineering reconstructions, maintenance of the use of geotextiles for crack management, and the use of geogrids for the management of soft soil roadbed.

In the road pavement project, geotextile is mainly used in the road surface cover, to prevent the road surface reflection cracks, delay the reflection cracks and carry out.

In roadbed engineering, geogrid is mainly used to deal with soft soil foundations, accelerate the consolidation of the foundation, and improve the bearing capacity of the foundation.

Because of geosynthetics [geotextile and geogrid] has excellent tensile strength characteristics, factory mass production, stable quality and sinking easy construction characteristics, has been widely used in various fields of civil engineering.

FAQ

Pavement structure to prevent reflective cracking of the geotextile should have what characteristics?

1. Good temperature resistance: asphalt mixture hot paving temperature up to 150 ℃ or so, asphalt temperature is higher, the requirement of geotextile in this construction temperature not only can not melt or soften but can maintain normal work. Requirements can withstand temperatures above 170 ℃.

2. good asphalt adsorption: general construction is first evenly sprayed through the layer of asphalt and then paved with geotextile, geotextile should be able to absorb asphalt and saturate, the requirement of geotextile has a good adsorption capacity.

3. good flexibility: flexibility including toughness and surface hardness of two meanings. Toughness reflects the ability of the geotextile to absorb impact energy, which can be approximated by the tensile strength of the material and the product of the elongation measure; generally to CBR test top breaking strength to indicate its surface hardness.

4. good uniformity: geotextile for the various anisotropic materials, to ensure uniform strength, the two-way strength ratio should not be greater than 1.2. generally should be used non-woven geotextile and do not use the preparation of geotextile.

5. aging resistance: geotextile is required to maintain normal working conditions during the service life of the road surface.

6. Thickness requirements: to prevent the addition of geotextile caused by the asphalt surface layer of adverse negative effects (asphalt layer stripping damage), should be strictly limited to the thickness of the geotextile, generally not greater than 2.0mm.

7. water permeability: geotextile also requires good water permeability, which can be measured by the vertical permeability coefficient.

What are the laying methods and requirements of geomembranes during construction?

Geomembrane laying method

1. Geomembrane wall laying
This method is suitable for the occasion that needs to carry out seepage control treatment on the wall. The specific operation is to use glue to fix the geomembrane on the wall, and then welding and sealing treatment.

2. Suspended laying
In this way, the geomembrane is not directly laid on the ground, but suspended on the wire rope or reinforcing steel mesh. This method of laying is suitable for situations where root protection is required.

3. Direct laying
This is the most common way of laying geomembranes. The specific operation is to lay the geomembrane on the foundation or slope, and pay attention to the geomembrane to reserve a certain thickness for welding.

Geomembrane laying requirements

1. Before laying the geomembrane, the ground surface should be cleaned and made clean and flat. 2.

2. when laying the geomembrane, avoid stepping on or pulling the geomembrane, so as not to cause damage to the geomembrane. 3. when welding the geomembrane, avoid stepping on or pulling the geomembrane.

3. when welding, use professional welding equipment to ensure the quality of welding.

4. when laying the geomembrane, pay attention to reducing the number of seams, and handle the seams well to ensure the seepage control effect.

5. When laying the geomembrane, make sure that there are enough weights around it to prevent the geomembrane from being blown away or displaced by wind.

6. Before laying the geomembrane, make sure that it conforms to the specifications and check whether there are any defects such as breakage or cracks in the geomembrane.

What are the specific operation steps in the reinforcement treatment of back-of-platform roadbed fill?

1. Terrain clearing and measurement: First, clear the vegetation and debris in the area of the back of the platform, carry out site leveling, and then carry out accurate measurement and sampling according to the design requirements, and mark out the scope and level of reinforcement.

2. Laying geosynthetics: according to the design drawings, lay geogrids or geotextiles layer by layer from the bottom on the cleaned ground of the back of the platform, make sure that the material is smooth and wrinkle-free, and the edges are firmly anchored.
Make sure the material is smooth, without folds, and the edges are firmly anchored.

3. Layered filling and rolling: on the paved geosynthetics, pave the filler with specified particle size in layers, with the thickness of each layer controlled within a certain range (e.g. not more than 30cm), and use vibratory rollers or heavy rollers to compact the filler in each layer to achieve the specified degree of compaction.

4. Arrangement and fixing of reinforcement bands: If the design includes reinforcement bands (such as plastic bands and steel mesh), lay them at specific levels according to the designed spacing, arrange them staggered with geosynthetics, and fix them in the back of the platform and the filling soil with anchoring nails or tying bands.

5. Quality inspection: Every layer of filling should be inspected for compaction, leveling and elevation to ensure that the quality of filling meets the standard requirements.
Quality Inspection

6. Drainage system setup: In the process of filling, setting up, or reserving roadbed drainage facilities, such as a blind ditch, drainpipe, etc., to ensure the stability of the roadbed and prevent water damage.

7. Layer-by-layer reinforcement and filling: Repeat the above ② to ⑤ steps, layer by layer upward reinforcement and filling until reaching the design height.

8. Slope protection and greening: After the roadbed is filled to the top, carry out slope protection treatment, such as hanging net spraying, masonry slope protection, etc., and carry out greening according to the need to beautify the environment and strengthen ecological protection.

What are the heat resistance and tensile criteria to consider when choosing fiberglass mesh?

The properties of fiberglass fabrics mainly include strength, elongation, heat resistance, chemical resistance, and water resistance. The main considerations for the performance requirements of fiberglass fabrics are as follows:

Strength: transverse and longitudinal tensile strength should be not less than 240N/5cm and 200N/5cm respectively.
Elongation: transverse and longitudinal elongation should be not higher than 5% and 4% respectively.
Heat resistance: it should be able to remain intact at two different temperatures of 121℃ and 260℃.
Chemical resistance: it shall not be eroded and its PH value shall be within the range of 6-10.
Waterproof: It can be treated with waterproofing according to the requirements of users.

Conclusion

Geosynthetics play an irreplaceable role in road construction. It replaces the traditional method of road construction with unparalleled advantages, a wide range of applications, and very low cost. In the future, geosynthetics will have a wider application in road construction.

Now, if you are looking for geosynthetics for road construction, please feel free to contact us, QIVOC will provide you with free technical consultation and the most favorable product price.

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